Central Asia: Demand for water
The demand for water in Central Asia will increase dramatically in the next 10 years due to the population growth and needs in the agricultural area. The trans boundary water management plays an important role in the management of water between the countries in the region. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan are using the water streams of the Syr Darya River. The river provides water to 3.5 million hectares of land. There are five reservoirs in the river basin. The largest is the Toktogul Hydroelectric Power Station in Kyrgyzstan. Experts said that the moderate level of water in the river is due to the sediments as well as Kyrgyzstan’s proper management of water usage.
ODIL KHOLKHUDZHAYEV, HEAD, SYRDARIYA WATER MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION:
- The level of water per year depends on the water level in the Toktogul reservoir. If it contains more water, then the reservoir will, of course, not be shallow. Kyrgyzstan is less dependent on the reservoir for its electricity. We started receiving electricity thanks to Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. These countries provide alternative electricity source for us since our reservoir is closing.
Uzbekistan has reduced the number of its cotton areas by 10,000 hectares this year. The country has decided to develop horticulture using a highly effective method of drip irrigation systems and other advanced scientific solutions. Based on research, 22 per cent of river resources are used before the water could reach the planted area. Scientist, Bakir Serikbayev from Tashkent has developed a double irrigation system with the secondary evaporated water method.
BAKIR SERIKBAYEV, PHD IN ENGINEERING:
- It is necessary to collect water during the formation of fog. People, of course, do not understand how to collect the fog. I will explain. In hot weather, water evaporates in the air at the height of two meters. The fog is composed of water droplets. So during this time, the double irrigation occurs. The fog contains water not only for the better process of transpiration but also protects plants from direct sunlight.
In the South Kazakhstan region, drinking water is provided from the Ugam River with the help of the systematic work of the Interstate Coordination Water Commission of Central Asia. The agriculture industry in the region is developing. The level of water in the small Aral Sea is increasing as it turned into a semi-flow water from a saline drainage basin.