At different times, Samarkand was the capital of great empires that left a deep mark in the history of mankind. It was conquered by Alexander of Macedon, conquered by Genghis Khan, it was ruled by Amir Timur.

Samarkand is the first place in the Middle East where paper made by hand using a water mill was produced. The technology was borrowed from the Chinese.

Today Samarkand is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.