General Information about Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan, which is located in the center of Eurasia, happened to be at the crossing of ancient civilizations of the world, at the intersection of transport corridors, social and economic, cultural and ideological relations between East and West, South and North, between Europe and Asia, between major state institutions of Eurasian continent. The life of Kazakhstan in the status of sovereign state was marked by whole new level of statehood, real sovereignty and transformation of the whole public and political system.
Kazakhstan is located in the centre of the Eurasian continent. It is ranked as the 9th largest country in the world and the 2nd among the CIS countries. Kazakhstan is bordered by 5 republics including China, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Russia. There are two time zones in the country and the climate is considered to be continental with wide temperature variations between winter and summer. The area of the country is 2,724,900 km2 with an overall border length of 13,200 km. Atmospheric temperature ranges from -45 degrees Celsius to +45 degrees Celsius.
To the begining of 2015 year the population of Kazakhstan is officially estimated at 17,417,673 people (www.stat.gov.kz).
Kazakhstan is a secular state with freedom of religion being guaranteed by the Constitution. Islam is the primary religion. Kazakhstan is a multi-confessional country and there are about 3 thousand religious groups representing 40 confessions.
Kazakh is the official language. The Russian language is used officially as well in governmental organizations and local administration bodies along with the Kazakh language; English is the language of business.
Astana is the capital of Kazakhstan. It is located in the geographical centre of the country, at the crossroads of the main transport routes between Europe and Asia. The highest bodies of power and administration such as the head of state’s "Ak Orda" residence, parliament, the central ministries and departments as well as the Supreme and Constitutional Courts are concentrated here. Astana hosts all the major political events which take place in the country.
Diplomatic relations have been established with 139 countries. There are more than 60 embassies, foreign missions and international political organizational representations operating in the republic. Kazakhstan is a member of more than 60 international organizations such as the UN, OSCE, CICA, SCO, NATO/EAPC, CIS, CSTO, EurAsEc (EEC), UES, TURKSOY, OIC and others.
Financial system and economy
The National bank of Kazakhstan chairs the financial system of the republic. Observation and regulatory powers belong to the Financial Supervision Agency. The stock market is developing successfully. The currency of Kazakhstan is the Tenge. Kazakhstan is divided into 5 large economic areas. The priority sectors of the economy include mining and processing, heavy and light industries as well as agriculture. A high stake is placed on the development of the small and medium sized enterprise (SME) sectors. Support is guaranteed for the industrial and cluster state programmes.
Kazakhstan’s soil was found to host 99 elements of the periodic table out of a total of 105 elements and 60 of them are being used in production. Kazakhstan is ranked 5th in the world concerning the volumes of hydrocarbon output. According to the latest geological exploration data, oil reserves exceed 2 billion tonnes. Natural gas reserves are estimated at 2.5 trillion cubic metres.
The transportation structure of the republic is represented by railway, air, sea, river and pipeline transport as well as its network of roads. The majority of freight is transported by railway. The total length of the railway network is 14.5 thousand km. The length of public roads equals 83.3 thousand km with 17.7 thousand km being of national significance.
The Constitution of Kazakhstan grants its citizens the right to be provided with health care and to receive free and guaranteed medical care. A code on the nation’s health has been adopted. The nation’s health is one of the key priorities of the state.
Secondary education is compulsory and free in the country. There are both public and private secondary schools, vocational schools and colleges in the republic. Higher education is based on a three-stage system of Bachelor’s degrees, Master’s degrees and Doctorates.
Kazakhstan has 5 priority areas for scientific development defined by the government including nanotechnology and new materials, biotechnology, renewable energy technologies for the hydrocarbon and mining sectors, as well as nuclear, information and space technologies. The fundamental objective of the state scientific programme is to transform knowledge into innovation which is required for economic progress.
Space exploration has strategic significance for the development of Kazakhstan and is believed to be one of the primary resources which has contributed to the accession of the republic to the list of world space powers. The largest operational space launch facility in Eurasia - Baikonur - is situated in the country. It has retained the leading position in global space infrastructure for decades and remains the most productive launch site in the world. About 20 space rockets are launched into earth orbit from its launch facilities on an annual basis. The government of Kazakhstan has adopted a space industry development programme and is currently implementing several large space projects.
There are more than 50 theatres and 90 concert halls with more than 3500 libraries and 185 historic, art and literary museums in Kazakhstan. Large musical, theatrical and film festivals are held in the republic on a regular basis. The names of the leading opera and ballet performers as well as musicians are well-known internationally.
The development of sport is another priority direction of Kazakhstan’s state policy. Domestic athletes take part in major continental and global competitions and championships as well as the Olympic Games. The reconstruction of old and the construction of new sports facilities are underway in the country. Intensive training of young athletes is being carried out and a sports reserve is being formed as well.
Kazakhstan has unique natural potential as well as facilities of cultural and historic heritage. Over 700 travel itineraries throughout the whole country have been developed especially for tourists.
Kazakhstan nowadays is a swiftly developing country with a steadily growing economy. Kazakhstan is a state which has been integrated into all the world processes and is committed to democratic values. The people of Kazakhstan live in an atmosphere of friendship and tolerance.
Welcome to Kazakhstan!