Kazakhstan is a country with rich historical and cultural past. Kazakhstan which is situated in the center of Eurasia appeared to be in the crossing of world’s ancient civilizations, transport corridors, social and economic, culture and ideological links between East and West, South and North, between Europe and Asia, between major state formations of Eurasian continent. Territory of Kazakhstan witnessed the development of distinctive cultural histories at various stages of history, the heir of which is modern Kazakhstan.

Ancient times


The territory of Kazakhstan was included in the zone of formation and establishing of the first people due to the presence of Paleolithic sites of the early man in the southern part. The earliest man appeared in our land approximately half a million years ago. The best proving of this are the tools found in the Barykazgan, Tanirkazgan, Shabakty, Kazangap sites, discovered in the north-east districts of the Small Karatau and Karasu ridges, where archeologists collected over 15 000 kinds of stone products. Later historical significant sites of the ancient Paleolithic age were found in the North Balkhash. Primitive inhabitants of Karatau and Mangystau were able to get and keep the fire, were engaged in hunting on large and small animals and gathering the plant foods.

Significant sites of Upper Paleolithic, indicating the rise of art, are undoubted culture achievement. They are found in the territories of eastern, southern and central Kazakhstan. The wonderful ideal of animal images, engraved on the walls and low ceilings of the caves in Ural and other regions of Kazakhstan, indicates that the territory of Kazakhstan was put in the achievements of the human world progress. Currently about 130 major concentrations of rock art have been found.

The value of the Stone Age in the history of Kazakhstan lays in its representation of the beginning of human formation as well as of his household.

The area, on which the significant sites of the Bronze Age were spread and called as andron and begazy-dandybay culture, located at the territory from the Southern Ural in the west to Yenisei River in the east, from the forest-steppe zone of the Western Siberia in the north to the Central Asia lands of ancient irrigation in the south. Andron and begazy-dandybay cultures witnessed the prosperity of cattle industry and rapid development of base metals metallurgy in the territory of Kazakhstan.

The development of iron increased the productivity of labour. Mankind perfected tools and caparison, stirrups, canons and saddles were invented.

Great steppe of Eurasia improved the land for cattle, laid the foundation of nomadic cattle breeding. By the end of the Bronze Age people pastured away from home, wandering with cattle.

In areas of Zhetysu and southern Kazakhstan, where the climate was favorable for the engagement in agriculture along with the semi-nomadic cattle breeding, the agriculture was developed too including irrigating. Artisans produced tools, crockeries and necessary equipage for nomadic household. Archeological and geological studies prove the presence of metallic mineral production already in the III millennium BC. Modern mines have been known since ancient times. The copper was mined on the territory of Zheskazgan and Zyryanovsk, stannary in Kalb and Narym, gold mines were found in Stepnyak, Akzhol, Balazhal, silver and iron were mined in the Central and Northern Kazakhstan. Southern Siberia and Kazakhstan became first regions where ironstone was mined. Sources give different names to the ancient people of Kazakhstan. Persians called the inhabitants of steppe as Sakas, Greeks – Asian Scythians. According to ancient Iranian sources, they were “tours with fast horses”. Sakas are the ancient tribe who inhabited on the territory of Kazakhstan and Central Asia in I millennium BC.

The Sarmatians is the common name of the ancient tribes, populated on the territory of Kazakhstan, the lower reaches of Ural and Volga. The Sarmatians were a warrior tribe.  Moreover, they were the people with high developed art. Women in the Sarmatians society were included in the military community of the tribe. Numerous findings of weapon in female burials can serve as the proving.

The most important source for the history of Saka tribes - their material culture is the archaeological sites – burial grounds, cave drawings, treasures of Saka people.

The ancient world-famous Saka burial mound Issyk was excavated in 1969 at 50 km from Almaty. “Golden man”, found in the Issyk burial mound, is a unique example of the Saka culture, the carriers of which were the ancestors of the Kazakh people.

Usuns – is one of the ancient nations who had passed a complicated historical development. Tribes of the Usuns, who had inherited the lands of Sakas-Tigrahauda, came to Zhetysu from the Central Asia depth. In the II century BC the Usuns subordinated the Sakas tribes and established tenancy of land headed by their leader.

The III BC witnessed the events which are called as the great transmigration of people. As a result of these historical events, a number of new state unions had appeared in the Central Asia. One of them is the Kangui state.

In the middle of I century BC, nomadic tribes of the Central Asia took a large part in the Eurasia history. In the IV—III centuries BC, tribal associations, called Gunnu (Huns, Sunnu, Dunkhu) appeared in the North China and the Central Asia. Huns’ hikes had affected all the European nations. Dozens of tribes, numbered thousands of people, couldn’t stand the Huns’ push and had to move to other places. The movement of the Huns had led to the significant geographic changes in Europe. Enormous masses of people moved, leaving their ancient settlements and becoming refugees. Later, this period of the history was called as the Great Transmigration of People.  During some years, the Huns had reached the west borders of Europe from the Central Asia. In 558 the Huns began the internal war again, but they were destroyed by the Avars, who were in the flight from the Turks. This was the end of the Huns Empire existence. At this time, the Great Steppe gave rise to the new state unions, subordinated to one center. The Turks, who became the governors of the Great Steppe, started the reclamation of vast territory. Thus, the age of Turks started. Along with their coming, the history of Kazakhstan and the Central Asia, in whole, witnessed the period of medieval history or the History of Middle Age.

History of the Middle Ages


Nomads fulfilled the role of the mediator between eastern and western civilizations. Ancient Sakas, Huns, Usuns, Kanguy, Turks worshiped sky and called it Tengri. Blue sky, bright sun and moon considered to be almighty power. The blue sky was the symbol of wealth and friendship, unity and independence for nomads. No wonder that our National flag has blue color and it shows the Sun.

The birth of human being and his qualities considered to be the matter of Tengri. There is some similarity between Tengri and Islam. Therefore, from the VIII century Turkish people began to accept Islam. Other nations had taken foreign religions with animosity. The nomads showed tolerance toward the neighboring religious.

Starting from the VI century up to the beginning of the XIII century, the territory of Kazakhstan was the seat of West-Turkic, Tyurgeshes, Karluk Kaganates, of the state made by the Oguz, Karakhanides, Kimeks and Kypchaks. Uluses of the Mongol Empire of Zhuchi-Khan and Zhagatai were formed, which later gave birth to Ak-Orda and finally to the Kazakh khanate after the Mongol invasion in the beginning of XIII century.

In the middle of the VI century the political scene of the Central Asia demonstrated a new “character” – Turkic Kaganates, who soon became the largest state in the early Middle Ages.

With full common of ethno-political processes in the vast territory of Kazakhstan in early II millennium AD, the history of tribal unions, living in its area is connected primarily with state unions of Kypchaks tribes. A number of sources provide the information concerning the foreign policy relations of the Kypchaks in the XI century – beginning of XIII centuries. The geography of these relations was extensive. Kypchaks were the most important internal and external factor in the policies of such states as Byzantium, Russia, Georgia, Seljuk Sultanate, Volga Bulgaria and Hungary. Chinese sources show the close relations between Kypchaks of Kazakhstan and the civilizations of the Central Asia and Far East.

In the IХ and the beginning of XIII century an overall rise of city culture in the Central Asia and Kazakhstan region was observed. The area size of cities was growing and crafts were progressing rapidly, craft producers and settlements of potters appeared. The production of glazed ceramics and glass were mastered, trade relations were strengthening, and new trade routes appeared. The passage of West-East international trade route through the territory of the South Kazakhstan took the important part in the activity and rise of its cities.

The Great Silk Way is one of the greatest achievements in the history of world civilization. The Extensive branches of caravan ways crossed the Europe and Asia from the Mediterranean to China and served as the important mean of trade relations and dialog between cultures of West and East in the ancient times and the Middle Ages. The longest part of the Silk Way passed through the territory of the Central Asia and Kazakhstan.

Formation of Kazakh nation


At the end of XII – early XIII centuries the political situation in the steppes of the Central Asia and Kazakhstan characterized by the strengthening of the battle between the leaders of strong nomadic tribes unions for the power over the other tribes. In this battle the representative of one of the Mongol tribes Temuchin (Genghis-Khan) was able to show the remarkable talent of the warrior-conqueror. Mongol invasions had delayed significantly the formation of nationality on the territory of Kazakhstan, but couldn’t stop it. The process of Kazakh nation formation was accompanied by the formation of ethnic territory. In consequence of the ethno-political and economic factors, the Zhuz was appeared - ethno territorial unions of the Kazakh tribes and clans. There were 3 zhuzes in the territory of Kazakhstan – Uly (Senior), Orta – (Middle) and Kishi (Junior). The formation of the zhuzes happened under the influence of geographic, political and economical factors.

The appearance of Kazakh Khanate was a natural result of social, economic and ethno political processes, before proceeding on the territory of Kazakhstan. In the last third of ХV century the process of gradual inclusion of tribes and clans of the Seven Rivers into the Kazakh Khanate continued. One of the eminent Kazakh khans, who showed the process of “land collection” was Kasym.

From the beginning of the ХVIII century the external threat increased sharply. The Volga Kalmyks attacked from the south-west, supported by the Ural Cossacks. Bashkirs pretended to the camping ground beyond Ural. Moreover, they all were the nationals of Russia that led to the aggravation of relations between Kazakhstan and Russia. But the main threat was in the east in the face of powerful centralized state of oirats – Western Mongolia – Jungar khanate.

The Jungar attacks on Kazakhstan began in the ХV century. At the end of ХVI century part of Jungars, after defeat from Kazakhs, became dependant on the Kazakh khan Tauekel. Since early ХVII century Jungar pressure intensified, but the strengthening of Kazakh state, especially when Tauke-khan ruled, restrained aggressive plans of Jungar leaders. However, lately in the ХVII and early in the ХVIII centuries the situation changed not in favour of Kazakh.

Tauke was the last Kazakh khan, the power of whom was accepted in the whole state. After his death kelte khans (“minor khans”) raised their heads, and the leaders appeared in all 3 zhuzes. The lack of unity among Kazakhs predetermined the martial success of Jungar.

In 1723 Jungar set a peace with Manchu dynasty Qing, who ruled on China, thus indemnifying their real areas from the east and moving their troops into the territory to Kazakhstan. This year is the year of the beginning of the “Great Disaster” in the oral literature called “Aktaban-shubyryndy”.

The serious situation in the eastern border insisted on the community of powers of three zhuzes. At a public meeting the khan of the junior zhuz Abulkhair was elected as the chief commander of militia. The memory of the battle Anrakai in 120 km southeast from the Balkhash Lake in the Anrakai region (the place of Jungars’ moans and sobs) has been preserved in the Kazakh national literature. The victory in Anrakai battle was the result of the joint forces of the three zhuzes, which occurred in 1729 or spring of 1730. The Jungars drew back to the east within the boundaries of their own state.

Anrakai battle was the symbol of definite beginning of the modern age in Kazakhstan. It was the last bright page in the history of two nomadic nations of Eurasia before the offensive actions of colonialism. Kazakhs, being adapted to the new social and economic conditions and geopolitical situation, happening in the state, directed their eyes to the future towards renewing Russia. The history turned to be the sunset for Jungars, who aimed to maintain the unity of their own state and its political independence with a view to revenge over people like themselves - nomadic Kazakhs.

Russian Colonization of the Kazakh Steppes


One of the priorities in the national history of modern age was the problem of Kazakh-Russian relations since the middle of XVI till the early of XX century. The previous historiography of this issue had undergone various estimates. Anyway the historical fact is that Kazakhstan, as a result of complicated conflicts in international relations, lost its political independence and state sovereignty for many years. The decisive year of Kazakhstan joining to Russia was 1731, when the leader of the junior zhuz Abulkhair addressed to Russian Empress Anna Ioanovna asking the citizenship and protection. The action of Abulkhair khan received very contradictory estimation in historiography. In February 19 of 1731 year, the Empress Anna Ioanovna signed the letter of grant to Abulkhair khan concerning the junior zhuz acceptance of Russian citizenship. The oath of sultans and seniors of Junior and Middle zhuzes in 1740, led to the subordination of the part of middle zhuz to Russia. The main regions of north-east and central Kazakhstan entered the empire only in 20th-40th years of XIX century, in consequence of military and political actions of tsarism.

The further approval of Russia rule in Kazakhstan, including the first quarter of the XIX century, was implemented by various ways and methods: military and political – the construction of strong points and Cossacks lines (Orenburg, Ishim, and Kolyvan), which subsequently formed the non-breaking series of redoubts, outposts, forts; diplomatic – royal officials were sent to Kazakh steppes. The conflicts between ancestors and sultans, as well as conflicts between them and border administration, social and economic were settled with the help of negotiations. The trade began to develop, Kazakh grand people were brought to the security of trade caravans, the houses were constructed on the wintering grounds of the nobility, and the finance and profitable payment were provided for them, accompanied by the honorary awards and gifts.

In the middle of the XVIII century the condition of foreign policy had complicated situation of Middle and Senior zhuzes. The period of government of Abylai Khan is characterized by his finding the way between Russia, China and Central Asia despots. Abylai Khan remained in people’s memory as a symbol of the struggle for independence and sovereignty of Kazakhstan. Refusing to accept the title of Khan from the imperial government and later on, he refused to take the oath in Petropavlovsk and to receive offered gifts from the imperial government after his approval as Khan by Catherine II. Such actions show that he was a forward-looking statesman, wise ruler, ambitious politician and talented military leader of  Kazakh people.

The question of the objective inevitability of colonialism and the loss of political independence of Kazakh people by the end of the XVIII century was predetermined. The absorption of Kazakh lands by the Russian Empire took place since the first half of the XIX century to the 60's years. The main demonstrations of the process of submission of Kazakhstan by Russian Empire were:

- elimination of the key attributes of the Kazakh state – the retraction of the Khan's authority according to the Igelstrom reform in 1785-1786 years; “Statute concerning the Siberian Kyrgyz” (1822); “Statute concerning the Orenburg Kyrgyz” (1824); replacement of the biy court with empire-wide Russian court; strengthening the role of Russian military courts; and the transition of tax collection in the steppe to the jurisdiction of the Russian authorities;

- military colonization of Kazakh lands and the strengthening of the role of Russian Cossacks as a colonial and military support of tsarism;

- the creation of new Cossack troops - the Siberian, Orenburg, Semirechensk; construction of new cities, castles, fortified lines, spread around the territory of Kazakhstan from the Caspian Sea to Irtysh from Ishim and Tobol to the Aral Sea and the Syrdariya and Seven Rivers (Zhetysu);

- instantaneous restriction of the rights of all classes of the Kazakh society that enabled the change some of the khans, sultans and biy into the low-level officials of the Russian administration; who disagreed with such a fate were repressed.

Obvious conquests in the 60's years of the XIX century Turkestan, Shymkent, Aulie-Ata and other cities and settlements on the territory of the Senior Zhuz completed the process of subordination of Kazakhstan by Russia. Lands of the Kazakhs were declared to be the property of the Russian crown. The latest served as the legal basis for their exclusion in favour of immigrants, creating unprecedented in the size of emigrant tsarism policy. Perhaps there is no theme in the historical science of Kazakhstan which is comparable with the history of the national liberation struggle of the Kazakh people during the accession of Kazakhstan to Russia. According to modern researches of historians, the major events of Kazakh struggle for independence and self-development are: the anti-colonial movement led by Syrym Datov (1783-1797), peasant liberation uprising of Isatai Taimanov and Makhambet Utemisov (1836-1838), people's liberation uprising and civil war of Kenesary Kasymov (1837-1847), the uprising of Dzhanhozha Nurmukhamedov (1856-1857), Eset Kotibarov uprising (1858-1869), the uprising of the peasants in Mangyshlak (1869-1870). Tradition of struggle against retracting of the Kazakh region in the colonial system of the Russian Empire was continued, but by other methods and means of the Kazakh intelligentsia’s representatives of the reform movement in the second half of the XIX - early XX centuries. In general, there is a belief among researchers that during the national liberation struggle for independence, Kazakh people raised the colour of freedom more than 400 times.

Without belittling the importance of the transformation of the former eastern colony of the Russian Empire into the industrial developed country, we cannot be silent about the real costs of the rebuilding for which there were real people and events.

The Development of Kazakhstan during the Soviet period


"The triumph of Soviet power" led to fratricidal Civil War of 1918-1920. Economic difficulties after the Civil war worsened in the early 20's with the hunger, which covered a large part of Kazakhstan. The number of hungry people in Kazakhstan in November 1921 accounted to 1 million 508 thousand people, and by March 1922 - 2 million 300 thousand. It was a time when people ate people. The transition from civil war to peace in Kazakhstan took place in an extremely complicated international and domestic situation.

According to Lenin's idea, the Soviet government put forward the alternative of non-capitalist way for progressing to a socialist future for backward people of Russia. The nature of this experiment was a giant leap from the empire of patriarchal feudalism into the communist paradise. However, in fact, this "jump", implemented by the dictatorship and violence, brought these people the untold sufferings. These were years of gradual replacement of people power government with the personal dictatorship, the force of command-and-control leading, region autocracy. For Kazakhstan this period was a time of the implementation of the concept of the Bonapartist “Little October” of the Kazakhraykom First Secretary Goloschyekin F.I. (1925-1933).

The agricultural sector of economy was to be a tool for rapid industrialization of the main goal of economic development of the Soviet state. This is the point of the beginning of collectivization taken in the late 20's. The collectivization meant a system of collective farms of collective farmers with complete estrangement from the means of production. In Kazakhstan collectivization was ordered to be completed by spring 1932. Without this the accelerated process was subjected to adventurous experience government of Goloschyekin.

Dekulakization was one of the serious consequences of collectivization. 3113 people were prosecuted and arrested, and 2450 households were subjected to expulsion in March 15, 1930 in Kazakhstan. The territory of Kazakhstan had become a place of “kulak transportation” of farmers from other regions of the Soviet state. Kazakh people still compare the hunger years of 1931-1933 with “Aktaban shubyryndy”, that is “Years of great distress”, lived out during the jungarian invasion. Victims of the hunger and its severe consequences were accounted for 1 million 750 thousand people or 42% of the whole Kazakh population. 1010 thousand Kazakh people left the borders of their historical homeland, 616 thousand of them forever. About 200 thousand people went to foreign countries - China, Mongolia, Afghanistan, Iran and Turkey. The traditional cattle farm for Kazakh was subjected to destruction by destroying the huge amount of cattle by government, which had been the main source of supply.

Tragic feature of public and political life in Kazakhstan since the middle of 20's years was that from this time the ideological administration of Stalinism began to hold major events, directed to eradication of the historical memory of people and the physical destruction of these memory carriers - the prominent representatives of national intelligence.

The political persecution of the party members "Alash", as well as leading officials of the Republic, holding their positions in the issues of the rates and methods of socio-economic change in the region and expressing their doubts concerning  the correctness of the policy of center, grossly violating the sovereign rights of the Republic in the solutions of economic, political and human issues, had not been considered with national characteristics and interests of the indigenous population, gradually increased with the rise of the totalitarian regime.

The aggravation of the situation and suspiciousness became universal by the end of 20's. The fighting increase in the center with a Trotsky-Zinoviev opposition and "right opportunists" in the national republics came in the form of repression of representatives of the national liberation movement. At the end of 1928 on false charges 44 people were arrested from the so-called "bourgeois nationalists" - former officials of "Alash Orda", including Baitursynov, Dulatov, Zhumabayev, Aymautov, Gabbasov and others. Another group of national intelligence (about 40 people) including Tynyshpayev, Dosmukhamedov, Akpayeva and others was arrested in September and October 1930, soon 15 of them were sent to the Central Black Earth region of Russia. Almost all of them were repressed in 1937-1938.

From 1936 to 1938 the USSR Chairman of a Session of the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court was the divisional military lawyer Goryachyev. From February 25 to March 13, 1938 he submitted death sentences every day. 39 people were sentenced to death in February 25, among whom were Saken Seifullin, Sanzhar Asphendiyarov, Temirbek Zhurgenov, Seytkali Mendeshev, Zhanaidar Sadvakasov, on February 26 - 37 people, among them - Ilyas Dzhansugurov, Ilyas Kabulov, Zhumat Shanin, 27 February - 41 people, February 28 – 40, and so on until 13th of March inclusive the dozens of colors of the Kazakh intelligentsia were destroyed.

Deportations, resettlement of entire nations from their lands were the crime of totalitarianism. This practice of stalinism, which began in the autumn of 1937, 102 thousand Koreans were deported to Kazakhstan, was essentially genocide. Poles, Volga Germans, Kalmyks, Chechens, Ingush, Balkar, Crimean Tatars, Karachays, Meskhetian Turks, Bulgarians, and Kurds were subjected to violent migration in the 1938-1944 years. Thousands of Latvians, Estonians and Western Ukrainians were deported to the east in 1947-1952 years. The Jews and Abkhazians had to be deported in 1953.

In general, the 30's had been identified as the time of approval of a totalitarian, bureaucratic socialism in the Soviet Union. Stalinism became the embodiment of perversion of the theory and practice of socialism. However, the dialect of life gave rise to the people’s faith in the ideals of the natural spiritual, heroic conduct, the farm revolutionary enthusiasm and friendship of the people. Their rich secular traditions prevailed over hurt to the system, clearly manifesting itself in the years before the people's war against the Nazi invaders.

The Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 held endlessly many things. Kazakhs, like other people of Central Asia, for the first time took part in the present war as an equal. Kazakh warrior took part in the war as a liberator of Europe from the yoke of fascism. He participated in the storming of the Reichstag, planted the flag of victory over his military honor, formed on the territory of Kazakhstan. In the ranks of the army 1200 Kazakhstan citizens were mobilized. 497 of these people were awarded the title of  "Hero of the Soviet Union". 110 people were awarded the "Order of Glory" of the third degree. Over 410 thousand Kazakhstan citizens fell on the field of German-Italian-Japanese War.

After the end of the Great Patriotic War Kazakhstan faced the task of further development of the national economy. Industry of Kazakhstan through the evacuated enterprises during the World War significantly surpassed the prewar level. In 1946, Kazakhstan has completed the transition of the economy to a peaceful way. The country was actively developing the coal industry and agriculture during this period. The length of railway lines increased.

With the increase in population, especially in the cities and industrial centers, demand for food increased sharply again. In 1953, the country harvested a little more than 31 million tons of grain and spent 32 million tons. The extensive way to solve the problem of grain was elected; the course was chosen to plow huge tracts of land in the east. So there was a call: “Everything for the development of new lands!"

There were built many cities and towns, railroads, roads, elevators and other facilities necessary for the life of virgin soil over the years of development of new lands in Kazakhstan. However, when evaluating aimed epic, along with the positive aspects, we should pay attention to those aspects of the shares as sustainability, economic viability and social efficiency. If we analyze the situation of the three positions, we would reveal many negative aspects.

By 1960, the new lands in the northern region of Kazakhstan over 9 million ha of soil have undergone wind erosion, it was approximately equal to the total agricultural area of ​​a country such as France. With regard to economic feasibility, this aspect should not be illustrated. So noone knows what the real price of the economic costs of the legendary "Kazakh billion."

New land has generated a number of negative aspects in social terms. The reclamation of new and fallow lands was realized by means of attracting labor resources from other regions of the Union. In fact, there was uncontrolled migration. The indigenous population of areas had to leave their settled places because the schools closed there, as well as central estate of collective and state farms. Everything was to redraw according to the new land plan. As a result, the proportion of indigenous people in the country declined to 30%. There was a real threat to the functional development of language and social and cultural institutions of the Kazakh ethnic group.

In the late 60's the Republic has become a major center of ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, chemical industry. Kazakhstan accounted to 30%-70% of production in the country of metals such as copper, zinc and lead. Kazakhstan has become a unique agricultural region. State resources received every fourth ton of wool, one twelfth ton of meat and each fifth ton of grain here. Unfortunately, all this great economic potential affected inefficient management system in many ways making it blank without leading to a radical improvement of the welfare of the people of Kazakhstan.

Kazakhstan's economy in the 70 years of the first half of the 80's developed as before on an extensive basis, ignoring the economic incentives very receptive to the process. Although this period is characterized to the country as a period of stagnation, but in the whole, Kazakhstan witnessed a certain increase of the economic and cultural potential.

The developments of steel continued and there were built such enterprises as Sokolov-Sarbaisky, Lisakovskiy and ore processing plant. The construction of the Karaganda Steel Plant with the most powerful tinplate department in the country was finished. The Yermak and Aktobe Ferroalloy plants came into commission and began to operate at full capacity. The production of the country's only chromite ore increased in Aktobe. Pavlodar Tractor, Tselinograd agricultural machinery and constructive plant and others started giving products. The coal mining in Karaganda and Ekibastuz coal field developed rapidly.

A remarkable victory was achieved in 1979 in agriculture. “It was the year of the largest crop over 25 years of clearing. The Republic sold the state 1 billion 262 million pounds or more than 20 million tons of grain. Neither five-year plan had been so generous to the grain field, as the ninth”.

One-sided industrial structure characterized by raw materials orientation entrenched itself in 60-70 years, by the dictates of the central ministries or departments. The share of extractive industries in Kazakhstan in the early 80's was by 1.7 times higher than the average in the country.

Long-standing focus on the development of primary industries in the form of large enterprises had resulted in not having developed high-tech production, a low level of manufacturing and processing industries, the development of the production of consumer goods was low. About 60% of consumed non-food items were imported.

The industrial expansion of departments of constructed major industrial and energy sectors developed in huge sizes in those years. All these caused significant damage to the environment and human health. Extreme environmental situation was formed in the Aral Sea. Uncompensated seizure almost of all run on the needs of cotton fields had led to the fact that the water level in the sea went down by 15 meters, the shoreline retreated to the south and east to 60-120 km. 75 million tons of sand, dust and salt rose to atmosphere from the dried seabed annually. Over 1970-1990 the total mortality in the Aral Sea had doubled, infant mortality had exceeded 40-60 per 1000 live births, maternal mortality rate was above by 4,3 times of the all-Union rate. No less alarming environmental situation had developed in the area of ​​the Semipalatinsk polygon. Cities and towns with non-ferrous metallurgical and chemical industries were also in threatening environmental conditions.

Strain and errors in social and economic policy affected the ethnic relations as well. Countrywide idealization of the values ​​of internationalism, almost led to the denial of national interest, neglect of national traditions and national psychology. Republic hadn’t the opportunity to adjust professional, demographical, migration and language policies, took part in the distribution of labour.

Command-and-control totalitarian system had driven people into a dead end, the way out of which was one - revolutionary. The crisis situation had been getting worse in the upper government.

M.S. Gorbachyev took the leadership of the Party and State in March 1985. People were happy sincerely to witness this event because Gorbachev was comparatively young, and once, in April 1985, he proposed qualitatively new tasks of accelerating economic and social development in all areas of the life of country. However, his plans failed because of various reasons.

The December events of 1986 took a special place in the contemporary history of Kazakhstan, where according to archives, over 60 thousand people attended, 8000 of whom were arrested, 200 people were convicted, more than a thousand were repressed and underwent administrative punishment. Dozens of young people were killed.

The logical end and the finish of "perestroika" were the Moscow military takeover and its liquidation by Boris Yeltsin in August 1991. The dissolution of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan was in September 1991. Kazakh people were experiencing the last pages of socialism in their lives. The Soviet empire was heading for the fall; it was to be replaced by a long-awaited state independence and political independence of the future of Kazakhstan.

The modern history of Kazakhstan


At all times the understanding regarding the recent past events was not easy. Even more difficult when it refers to the period of time which contains the events of 20 years, which equals to the century. The opportunity to assess the past from the height of the current flight was given to several nations and leaders of modern states. Such a moment generates only creativity. Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Charles de Gaulle, Lee Kuan Yew, Deng Xiaoping, Mahathir Mohammad felt happy moments of wonderwork performance for the benefit of the people. Kazakh and world communities consider the President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev to be the cohort of architects and builders of the architectonics of independence and creator of steady modernity.

The content and nature of the many-sided activities of the President in creation of foundations of sovereignty and independence, the development of a sustainable society and prioritization of future of Kazakhstan on the latest stage of the national history is a prerequisite for assessing Nursultan Nazarbayev as the founder of the modern state of Kazakhstan recognized in public.

The years of independence will remain in the history of Kazakhstan sovereign state formation as the period of dynamic growth and system renewal of society life. The period from 1991 is time of hard work to create a new economic, political and legal system, the creation of market relations and democratic institutions based on the experience of developed countries and national peculiarities. Kazakhstan achieved a high economic and social progress based on democratic priorities without losing the most important-the unity and solidarity over the years.

The modern history of Kazakhstan includes the construction of an independent state based on the market economy, the formation of a new political system. The country witnessed the change of the social system; the revival and formation of a new state, the form of government, the formation of a new social structure, social stratification and structural economic reforms were implemented for a short period of time. The economic downturn and the economic crisis in the early and middle years of 1990’s and the subsequent recovery from the crisis happened over the decade and a half. Confident transition to a sustainable and stable economic growth began in 2000-2006 years.  Approval of the Republic of Kazakhstan as a competent subject of international relations and a number of other qualitatively new phenomena completely changed the face of the Kazakh society. The present stage of history includes radical reforms, social changes, which cardinally changed the country, the society and the people of Kazakhstan.

The specific feature of contemporary history of Kazakhstan is its richness of events. This condition is due to the implementation not only of political, primarily of economic modernization, in contrast to other countries. Being in a cohort with a number of post-communist countries, Kazakhstan had no experience in the development of market relations. Therefore, as one of the first foundations were laid of the market economy - the main economic prerequisites of democratization in our country.

The modern history of Kazakhstan marked with a qualitatively new level of statehood, sovereignty and the real transformation of the whole socio-political system. Entering the path of independence, the people of Kazakhstan entrusted the architecture of the future to the first President. In this historical moment Kazakhstan citizens did not doubt the creative talent of N.A. Nazarbayev as the leader of the nation, the society and the state. Time has proven the correctness of the people’s choice. Strategy of independence, which was made by President N.A. Nazarbayev, became the basis of the modern vision of modernization of Kazakhstan's society and the strengthening of the statehood of our country in the new world. The "Development Strategy of Kazakhstan until 2030" has received the world reputation. It says: "The choice of the planning horizon of 30 years was due to 2 main factors. Firstly, 30 years is a period of active life of a generation. Secondly, according to estimates of oil reserves and the likelihood of the introduction of alternative energy sources in Kazakhstan had determined the duration of 30-40 years”.

Kazakhstan phenomenon is that contrary to expectations of a deep economic collapse and, as a consequence, the internal detonation of multiethnic society, the country has managed to pass a formidable way of recognition of the state in the international community as an equal member without blood and almost burst of civil disobedience.

The guarrantee of public safety at all times is the state and its people. Achieving good results in the field of security and peaceful coexistence of nations is measured, particularly, by the forming of their borders, which was made by the President N.A. Nazarbayev for the first time ever. In fact, from that moment it became possible to speak of a truly national history of the state of Kazakhstan.

The content of Kazakh model of historical development in the period of independence is in the need to establish the main reasons and factors of success to overcome the post-Soviet stage and the Kazakhstan appearance on the economic, political, ideological, and cultural self-sufficiency highway. In this regard, the political determinants of the history of Kazakhstan in recent years were the following:

- unitary character of the state as a guarantee of integrity and success of political reform;

- social and economic modernization of the national economic complex;

- social and political relevance of the Letter of the President of Kazakhstan N.A. Nazarbayev, which determined the conditionality of incremental political reform on the fairway of economic favourable;

- formation of Kazakh society not as a new ethnic community, but as a community of citizens of different nationalities on the basis of civil self-determination; 

- objective vision and timely response to internal and external challenges of national security; the development of Kazakhstan as the subject of the new geopolitical realias and acting factor in the international stage.

The history of the period of development of Kazakhstan as an independent state at the present time is being studied by both domestic and foreign scientists. There are a number of works on the problems of the new state, the establishment and evolution of the presidency, the development of a system of separation of powers, the democratization of the society, the evolution of the party structure, the institutions of democracy, the forming of the new state - legal and judicial system. The issue of national identity, creating harmonious interethnic relations in the consolidation of statehood is discussed actively.

Doctor of historical sciences, professor